Sunday, 1 April 2007

Dr. Robert E. Larzelere

Selected Publications on Physical Discipline by Parents by Dr. Robert Larzelere, with Internet Links (Oklahoma State University)

Larzelere, R. E., & Kuhn, B. R. (2005). Comparing child outcomes of physical punishment and alternative disciplinary tactics: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8 (1), 1-37.

Larzelere, R. E. (2005). Differentiating evidence from advocacy in evaluating Sweden's spanking ban: A response to Joan Durrant's critique of my booklet "Sweden's smacking ban: More harm than good".Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

Larzelere, R. E. (2004). Scientific evidence on smacking. BMJ: British Medical Journal (eletter at

Larzelere, R. E., Kuhn, B. R., & Johnson, B. (2004) The intervention selection bias: An under-recognized confound in intervention studies. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 289-303.

Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. E., & Cowan, P. A. (2002). Ordinary physical punishment: Is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128, 580-589.

Larzelere, R. E. (2001). Sweden: Data does not support success claims. Families First (Issue 2), 12-15. & Updated and reprinted in 2004 as Sweden’s smacking ban: More harm than good. Essex, England: Families First.

Larzelere, R. E. (2001). Combining love and limits in authoritative parenting. In J. C. Westman (Ed.), Parenthood in America (pp. 81-89). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. (

Larzelere, R. E. (2001, May). We need the full picture on both smacking and vaccinations [Letter to the editor]. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 84, 450.

Larzelere, R. E. (2000). Child outcomes of non-abusive and customary physical punishment by parents: An updated literature review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3 (4), 199-221. (
This review was compared and contrasted with a review by Gershoff (2002) by the president-elect of the American Psychological Association: Benjet, C., & Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Spanking children: The controversies, findings, and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 197-224. Note that the Larzelere-Kuhn (2005) review follows the Benjet-Kazdin (2003) recommendation that the outcomes of physical discipline be compared with alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead.

Larzelere, R. E. (2000). Weak evidence for a smacking ban [letter]. BJM: British Medical Journal, 320, 1538-1539. (

Larzelere, R. E. (1999). To spank or not to spank [Letter to the editor] Pediatrics, 85, 381-392.

Larzelere, R. E., Baumrind, D., & Polite, K. (1998). Two emerging perspectives of parental spanking from two 1996 conferences. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 152, 303-305.

Larzelere, R. E., Sather, P. R., Schneider, W. N., Larson, D. B., & Pike, P. L.(1998). Punishment enhances reasoning’s effectiveness as a toddler disciplinary response to toddlers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(2), 388-403. Summary: Article:

1996 Scientific Consensus Conference on Corporal Punishment, co-sponsored by the American Academy of Pediatrics, including a review of the literature by Larzelere and reply by Diana Baumrind: Larzelere, R. E. (1996). A review of the outcomes of parental use of nonabusive or customary physical punishment. Pediatrics, 98(4), 824-831. (Summary included in )

Larzelere, R. E., & Merenda, J. A. (1994). The effectiveness of parental discipline for toddler misbehavior at different levels of child distress. Family Relations, 43, 480-488.

Larzelere, R. E. (1994). Should the use of corporal punishment by parents be considered child abuse? No. In M. A. Mason & E. Gambrill (Eds.), Debating children's lives: Current controversies on children and adolescents (pp. 204-209, 217-218). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Other links on corporal punishment by parents available at

Chris Beckett’s article exposing the “Swedish myth” that no more than one child abuse fatality has occurred in any year in Sweden since they banned spanking there in 1979:

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